PubMed

Recent Publications

Author Correction: A Myc enhancer cluster regulates normal and leukaemic haematopoietic stem cell hierarchies.

Related Articles

Author Correction: A Myc enhancer cluster regulates normal and leukaemic haematopoietic stem cell hierarchies.

Nature. 2018 May 16;:

Authors: Bahr C, von Paleske L, Uslu VV, Remeseiro S, Takayama N, Ng SW, Murison A, Langenfeld K, Petretich M, Scognamiglio R, Zeisberger P, Benk AS, Amit I, Zandstra PW, Lupien M, Dick JE, Trumpp A, Spitz F

Abstract
In the originally published version of this Letter, ref. 43 was erroneously provided twice. In the 'Estimation of relative cell-type-specific composition of AML samples' section in the Methods, the citation to ref. 43 after the GEO dataset GSE24759 is correct. However, in the 'Mice' section of the Methods, the citation to ref. 43 after 'TAMERE' should have been associated with a new reference1. The original Letter has been corrected online (with the new reference included as ref. 49).

PMID: 29769714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

A Screen for Epstein-Barr Virus Proteins that Inhibit the DNA Damage Response Reveals a Novel Histone Binding Protein.

Related Articles

A Screen for Epstein-Barr Virus Proteins that Inhibit the DNA Damage Response Reveals a Novel Histone Binding Protein.

J Virol. 2018 May 09;:

Authors: Ho TH, Sitz J, Shen Q, Leblanc-Lacroix A, Campos EI, Borozan I, Marcon E, Greenblatt J, Fradet-Turcotte A, Jin DY, Frappier L

Abstract
To replicate and persist in human cells, linear double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), must overcome the host DNA damage response (DDR) that is triggered by the viral genomes. Since this response is necessary to maintain cellular genome integrity, its inhibition by EBV is likely an important factor in the development of cancers associated with EBV infection, including gastric carcinoma. Here we present the first extensive screen of EBV proteins that inhibit dsDNA break signaling. We identify the BKRF4 tegument protein as a DDR inhibitor that interferes with histone ubiquitylation at dsDNA breaks and recruitment of the RNF168 histone ubiquitin ligase. We further show that BKRF4 binds directly to histones through an acidic domain that targets BKRF4 to cellular chromatin and is sufficient to inhibit dsDNA break signaling. BKRF4 transcripts were detected in EBV-positive gastric carcinoma cells (AGS-EBV) and these increased in lytic infection. Silencing of BKRF4 in both latent and lytic AGS-EBV cells (but not in EBV-negative AGS cells) resulted in increased dsDNA break signaling, confirming a role for BKRF4 in DDR inhibition in the context of EBV infection and suggesting that BKRF4 is expressed in latent cells. BKRF4 was also found to be consistently expressed in EBV-positive gastric tumours in the absence of a full lytic infection. The results suggest that BKRF4 plays a role in inhibiting the cellular DDR in latent and lytic EBV infection, and that the resulting accumulation of DNA damage might contribute to development of gastric carcinoma.IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects most people worldwide and is causatively associated with several types of cancer, including ∼10% of gastric carcinoma. EBV encodes ∼80 proteins many of which are believed to manipulate cellular regulatory pathways but are poorly characterized. The DNA damage response (DDR) is one such pathway that is critical for maintaining genome integrity and preventing cancer-associated mutations. Here a screen for EBV proteins that inhibit the DDR identified BKRF4 as a DDR inhibitor that binds histones and block their ubiquitylation at the DNA damage sites. We also present evidence that BKRF4 is expressed in both latent and lytic forms of EBV infection, where it down-regulates the DDR, as well as in EBV-positive gastric tumours. The results suggest that BKRF4 could contribute to the development of gastric carcinoma through its ability to inhibit the DDR.

PMID: 29743367 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

Flap endonuclease overexpression drives genome instability and DNA damage hypersensitivity in a PCNA-dependent manner.

Related Articles

Flap endonuclease overexpression drives genome instability and DNA damage hypersensitivity in a PCNA-dependent manner.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 May 07;:

Authors: Becker JR, Gallo D, Leung W, Croissant T, Thu YM, Nguyen HD, Starr TK, Brown GW, Bielinsky AK

Abstract
Overexpression of the flap endonuclease FEN1 has been observed in a variety of cancer types and is a marker for poor prognosis. To better understand the cellular consequences of FEN1 overexpression we utilized a model of its Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog, RAD27. In this system, we discovered that flap endonuclease overexpression impedes replication fork progression and leads to an accumulation of cells in mid-S phase. This was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of the checkpoint kinase Rad53 and histone H2A-S129. RAD27 overexpressing cells were hypersensitive to treatment with DNA damaging agents, and defective in ubiquitinating the replication clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) at lysine 164. These effects were reversed when the interaction between overexpressed Rad27 and PCNA was ablated, suggesting that the observed phenotypes were linked to problems in DNA replication. RAD27 overexpressing cells also exhibited an unexpected dependence on the SUMO ligases SIZ1 and MMS21 for viability. Importantly, we found that overexpression of FEN1 in human cells also led to phosphorylation of CHK1, CHK2, RPA32 and histone H2AX, all markers of genome instability. Our data indicate that flap endonuclease overexpression is a driver of genome instability in yeast and human cells that impairs DNA replication in a manner dependent on its interaction with PCNA.

PMID: 29741650 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

Cyclosporin A-Mediated Activation of Endogenous Neural Precursor Cells Promotes Cognitive Recovery in a Mouse Model of Stroke.

Related Articles

Cyclosporin A-Mediated Activation of Endogenous Neural Precursor Cells Promotes Cognitive Recovery in a Mouse Model of Stroke.

Front Aging Neurosci. 2018;10:93

Authors: Nusrat L, Livingston-Thomas JM, Raguthevan V, Adams K, Vonderwalde I, Corbett D, Morshead CM

Abstract
Cognitive dysfunction following stroke significantly impacts quality of life and functional independance; yet, despite the prevalence and negative impact of cognitive deficits, post-stroke interventions almost exclusively target motor impairments. As a result, current treatment options are limited in their ability to promote post-stroke cognitive recovery. Cyclosporin A (CsA) has been previously shown to improve post-stroke functional recovery of sensorimotor deficits. Interestingly, CsA is a commonly used immunosuppressant and also acts directly on endogenous neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the neurogenic regions of the brain (the periventricular region and the dentate gyrus). The immunosuppressive and NPC activation effects are mediated by calcineurin-dependent and calcineurin-independent pathways, respectively. To develop a cognitive stroke model, focal bilateral lesions were induced in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adult mice using endothelin-1. First, we characterized this stroke model in the acute and chronic phase, using problem-solving and memory-based cognitive tests. mPFC stroke resulted in early and persistent deficits in short-term memory, problem-solving and behavioral flexibility, without affecting anxiety. Second, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic CsA treatment on NPC activation, neuroprotection, and tissue damage. Acute CsA administration post-stroke increased the size of the NPC pool. There was no effect on neurodegeneration or lesion volume. Lastly, we looked at the effects of chronic CsA treatment on cognitive recovery. Long-term CsA administration promoted NPC migration toward the lesion site and rescued cognitive deficits to control levels. This study demonstrates that CsA treatment activates the NPC population, promotes migration of NPCs to the site of injury, and leads to improved cognitive recovery following long-term treatment.

PMID: 29740308 [PubMed]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

Muscle stem cell intramuscular delivery within hyaluronan methylcellulose improves engraftment efficiency and dispersion.

Related Articles

Muscle stem cell intramuscular delivery within hyaluronan methylcellulose improves engraftment efficiency and dispersion.

Biomaterials. 2018 Apr 26;173:34-46

Authors: Davoudi S, Chin CY, Cooke MJ, Tam RY, Shoichet MS, Gilbert PM

Abstract
Adult skeletal muscle tissue harbors the capacity for self-repair due to the presence of tissue resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). Advances in the area of prospective MuSC isolation demonstrated the potential of cell transplantation therapy as a regenerative medicine strategy to restore strength and long-term regenerative capacity to aged, injured, or diseased skeletal muscle tissue. However, cell loss during ejection, limits to post-injection proliferation, and poor donor cell dispersion distal to the injection site are amongst hurdles to overcome to maximize MuSC transplant impact. Here, we assess a physical blend of hyaluronan and methylcellulose (HAMC) as a bioactive, shear thinning hydrogel cell delivery system to improve MuSC transplantation efficiency. Using in vivo transplantation studies, we found that the HAMC delivery system results in a >45% increase in the number of donor-derived fibers as compared to saline delivery. We demonstrate that increases in donor-derived fibers when using HAMC are attributed to increased MuSC proliferation via a CD44-independent mechanism, preventing injected cell active clearance, and supporting in vivo expansion by delaying differentiation. Furthermore, we observed a significant improvement in donor fiber dispersion when MuSCs were delivered in HAMC. Our study results suggest that HAMC is a promising muscle stem cell delivery vehicle.

PMID: 29738956 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

The present and the future of motif-mediated protein-protein interactions.

Related Articles

The present and the future of motif-mediated protein-protein interactions.

Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2018 May 03;50:162-170

Authors: Seo MH, Kim PM

Abstract
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are essential to governing virtually all cellular processes. Of particular importance are the versatile motif-mediated interactions (MMIs), which are thus far underrepresented in available interaction data. This is largely due to technical difficulties inherent in the properties of MMIs, but due to the increasing recognition of the vital roles of MMIs in biology, several systematic approaches have recently been developed to detect novel MMIs. Consequently, rapidly growing numbers of motifs are being identified and pursued further for therapeutic applications. In this review, we discuss the current understanding on the diverse functions and disease-relevance of MMIs, the key methodologies for detection of MMIs, and the potential of MMIs for drug development.

PMID: 29730529 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

Calcium influx differentially regulates migration velocity and directedness in response to electric field application.

Related Articles

Calcium influx differentially regulates migration velocity and directedness in response to electric field application.

Exp Cell Res. 2018 May 02;:

Authors: Babona-Pilipos R, Liu N, Pritchard-Oh A, Mok A, Badawi D, Popovic MR, Morshead CM

Abstract
Neural precursor cells (NPCs) respond to externally applied direct current electrical fields (DCEFs) by undergoing rapid and directed migration toward the cathode in a process known as galvanotaxis. It is unknown if the underlying mechanisms of galvanotactic migration is common to non-electrosensitive cells and if so, how NPCs and other galvanotactic cells sense and transduce electrical fields into cellular motility. In this study, we show that distinct aspects of NPC galvanotactic migration: motility (quantified through |velocity|) and directedness, are differentially regulated by calcium. We use low-Ca2+ culture conditions; an intracellular Ca2+ chelator; and voltage gated calcium channel (VGCC) inhibitors to specific channels expressed on NPCs, to demonstrate the role of Ca2+ influx in DCEF-induced NPC migration. Consistent with existing literature, we show Ca2+ is involved in F-actin polymerization that lengthens NPC membrane protrusions necessary for cellular motility. However, inhibiting Ca2+ results in reduced velocity but has no effect on DCEF-induced directedness. This dissociation between velocity and directedness reveal that these migration parameters can be independently regulated, thus suggesting a parallel process of sensing DCEFs by NPCs.

PMID: 29729231 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

Global analysis of genetic circuitry and adaptive mechanisms enabling resistance to the azole antifungal drugs.

Read Full Article on External Site Read Full Article on External Site Related Articles

Global analysis of genetic circuitry and adaptive mechanisms enabling resistance to the azole antifungal drugs.

PLoS Genet. 2018 04;14(4):e1007319

Authors: Mount HO, Revie NM, Todd RT, Anstett K, Collins C, Costanzo M, Boone C, Robbins N, Selmecki A, Cowen LE

Abstract
Invasive fungal infections caused by the pathogen Candida albicans have transitioned from a rare curiosity to a major cause of human mortality. This is in part due to the emergence of resistance to the limited number of antifungals available to treat fungal infections. Azoles function by targeting the biosynthesis of ergosterol, a key component of the fungal cell membrane. Loss-of-function mutations in the ergosterol biosynthetic gene ERG3 mitigate azole toxicity and enable resistance that depends upon fungal stress responses. Here, we performed a genome-wide synthetic genetic array screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to map ERG3 genetic interactors and uncover novel circuitry important for azole resistance. We identified nine genes that enabled erg3-mediated azole resistance in the model yeast and found that only two of these genes had a conserved impact on resistance in C. albicans. Further, we screened a C. albicans homozygous deletion mutant library and identified 13 genes for which deletion enhances azole susceptibility. Two of the genes, RGD1 and PEP8, were also important for azole resistance acquired by diverse mechanisms. We discovered that loss of function of retrograde transport protein Pep8 overwhelms the functional capacity of the stress response regulator calcineurin, thereby abrogating azole resistance. To identify the mechanism through which the GTPase activator protein Rgd1 enables azole resistance, we selected for mutations that restore resistance in strains lacking Rgd1. Whole genome sequencing uncovered parallel adaptive mechanisms involving amplification of both chromosome 7 and a large segment of chromosome 3. Overexpression of a transporter gene on the right portion of chromosome 3, NPR2, was sufficient to enable azole resistance in the absence of Rgd1. Thus, we establish a novel mechanism of adaptation to drug-induced stress, define genetic circuitry underpinning azole resistance, and illustrate divergence in resistance circuitry over evolutionary time.

PMID: 29702647 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

A digital microfluidic system for serological immunoassays in remote settings.

Related Articles

A digital microfluidic system for serological immunoassays in remote settings.

Sci Transl Med. 2018 Apr 25;10(438):

Authors: Ng AHC, Fobel R, Fobel C, Lamanna J, Rackus DG, Summers A, Dixon C, Dryden MDM, Lam C, Ho M, Mufti NS, Lee V, Asri MAM, Sykes EA, Chamberlain MD, Joseph R, Ope M, Scobie HM, Knipes A, Rota PA, Marano N, Chege PM, Njuguna M, Nzunza R, Kisangau N, Kiogora J, Karuingi M, Burton JW, Borus P, Lam E, Wheeler AR

Abstract
Serosurveys are useful for assessing population susceptibility to vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks. Although at-risk populations in remote areas could benefit from this type of information, they face several logistical barriers to implementation, such as lack of access to centralized laboratories, cold storage, and transport of samples. We describe a potential solution: a compact and portable, field-deployable, point-of-care system relying on digital microfluidics that can rapidly test a small volume of capillary blood for disease-specific antibodies. This system uses inexpensive, inkjet-printed digital microfluidic cartridges together with an integrated instrument to perform enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). We performed a field validation of the system's analytical performance at Kakuma refugee camp, a remote setting in northwestern Kenya, where we tested children aged 9 to 59 months and caregivers for measles and rubella immunoglobulin G (IgG). The IgG assays were determined to have sensitivities of 86% [95% confidence interval (CI), 79 to 91% (measles)] and 81% [95% CI, 73 to 88% (rubella)] and specificities of 80% [95% CI, 49 to 94% (measles)] and 91% [95% CI, 76 to 97% (rubella)] (measles, n = 140; rubella, n = 135) compared with reference tests (measles IgG and rubella IgG ELISAs from Siemens Enzygnost) conducted in a centralized laboratory. These results demonstrate a potential role for this point-of-care system in global serological surveillance, particularly in remote areas with limited access to centralized laboratories.

PMID: 29695457 [PubMed - in process]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

Disruption of protein function by pathogenic mutations: common and uncommon mechanisms.

Disruption of protein function by pathogenic mutations: common and uncommon mechanisms.

Biochem Cell Biol. 2018 Apr 25;:

Authors: Taipale M

Abstract
Mutations in protein coding regions underlie almost all Mendelian disorders, drive tumorigenesis, and contribute to susceptibility to common diseases. Despite the great diversity of diseases that are caused by coding mutations, the cellular processes that affect - and are affected by - pathogenic variants at the molecular level are fundamentally conserved. Experimental and computational approaches have revealed that a substantial fraction of disease mutations are not simple loss-of-function alleles. Rather, these pathogenic variants disrupt protein function in more subtle ways by tuning protein folding pathways, altering subcellular trafficking, interrupting signaling cascades, and rewiring highly connected interaction networks. Focusing mainly on Mendelian disorders, this review discusses the common mechanisms by which deleterious mutations disrupt protein function and how these disruptions can be exploited in the development of novel therapies.

PMID: 29693415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

Back to Top