PubMed

Recent Publications

Reply to Comment on "Adult skin-derived precursor Schwann cell grafts form growths in the injured spinal cord of Fischer rats".

Reply to Comment on "Adult skin-derived precursor Schwann cell grafts form growths in the injured spinal cord of Fischer rats".

Biomed Mater. 2018 Mar 13;:

Authors: May Z, Fuehrman T, Shoichet MS, Tetzlaff W, Biernaskie J, Fouad K

Abstract
letter of response.

PMID: 29532786 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

Translocon Declogger Ste24 Protects against IAPP Oligomer-Induced Proteotoxicity.

Translocon Declogger Ste24 Protects against IAPP Oligomer-Induced Proteotoxicity.

Cell. 2018 Mar 05;:

Authors: Kayatekin C, Amasino A, Gaglia G, Flannick J, Bonner JM, Fanning S, Narayan P, Barrasa MI, Pincus D, Landgraf D, Nelson J, Hesse WR, Costanzo M, AMP T2D-GENES Consortium, Myers CL, Boone C, Florez JC, Lindquist S

Abstract
Aggregates of human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in the pancreas of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are thought to contribute to β cell dysfunction and death. To understand how IAPP harms cells and how this might be overcome, we created a yeast model of IAPP toxicity. Ste24, an evolutionarily conserved protease that was recently reported to degrade peptides stuck within the translocon between the cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum, was the strongest suppressor of IAPP toxicity. By testing variants of the human homolog, ZMPSTE24, with varying activity levels, the rescue of IAPP toxicity proved to be directly proportional to the declogging efficiency. Clinically relevant ZMPSTE24 variants identified in the largest database of exomes sequences derived from T2D patients were characterized using the yeast model, revealing 14 partial loss-of-function variants, which were enriched among diabetes patients over 2-fold. Thus, clogging of the translocon by IAPP oligomers may contribute to β cell failure.

PMID: 29526462 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

Convenience versus Biological Significance: Are PMA-Differentiated THP-1 Cells a Reliable Substitute for Blood-Derived Macrophages When Studying in Vitro Polarization?

Convenience versus Biological Significance: Are PMA-Differentiated THP-1 Cells a Reliable Substitute for Blood-Derived Macrophages When Studying in Vitro Polarization?

Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:71

Authors: Tedesco S, De Majo F, Kim J, Trenti A, Trevisi L, Fadini GP, Bolego C, Zandstra PW, Cignarella A, Vitiello L

Abstract
Human peripheral-blood monocytes are used as an established in vitro system for generating macrophages. For several reasons, monocytic cell lines such as THP-1 have been considered as a possible alternative. In view of their distinct developmental origins and phenotypic attributes, we set out to assess the extent to which human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 cells were overlapping across a variety of responses to activating stimuli. Resting (M0) macrophages were polarized toward M1 or M2 phenotypes by 48-h incubation with LPS (1 μg/ml) and IFN-γ (10 ng/ml) or with IL-4 (20 ng/ml) and IL-13 (5 ng/ml), respectively. At the end of stimulation, MDMs displayed more pronounced changes in marker gene expression than THP-1. Upon assaying an array of 41 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in conditioned media (CM) using the Luminex technology, secretion of 29 out of the 41 proteins was affected by polarized activation. While in 12 of them THP-1 and MDM showed comparable trends, for the remaining 17 proteins their responses to activating stimuli did markedly differ. Quantitative comparison for selected analytes confirmed this pattern. In terms of phenotypic activation markers, measured by flow cytometry, M1 response was similar but the established MDM M2 marker CD163 was undetectable in THP-1 cells. In a beads-based assay, MDM activation did not induce significant changes, whereas M2 activation of THP-1 decreased phagocytic activity compared to M0 and M1. In further biological activity tests, both MDM and THP-1 CM failed to affect proliferation of mouse myogenic progenitors, whereas they both reduced adipogenic differentiation of mouse fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells (M2 to a lesser extent than M1 and M0). Finally, migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was enhanced by CM irrespective of cell type and activation state except for M0 CM from MDMs. In summary, PMA-differentiated THP-1 macrophages did not entirely reproduce the response spectrum of primary MDMs to activating stimuli. We suggest that THP-1 be regarded as a simplified model of human macrophages when investigating relatively straightforward biological processes, such as polarization and its functional implications, but not as an alternative source in more comprehensive immunopharmacology and drug screening programs.

PMID: 29520230 [PubMed]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

Highly multiplexed and quantitative cell-surface protein profiling using genetically barcoded antibodies.

Highly multiplexed and quantitative cell-surface protein profiling using genetically barcoded antibodies.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Feb 23;:

Authors: Pollock SB, Hu A, Mou Y, Martinko AJ, Julien O, Hornsby M, Ploder L, Adams JJ, Geng H, Müschen M, Sidhu SS, Moffat J, Wells JA

Abstract
Human cells express thousands of different surface proteins that can be used for cell classification, or to distinguish healthy and disease conditions. A method capable of profiling a substantial fraction of the surface proteome simultaneously and inexpensively would enable more accurate and complete classification of cell states. We present a highly multiplexed and quantitative surface proteomic method using genetically barcoded antibodies called phage-antibody next-generation sequencing (PhaNGS). Using 144 preselected antibodies displayed on filamentous phage (Fab-phage) against 44 receptor targets, we assess changes in B cell surface proteins after the development of drug resistance in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and in adaptation to oncogene expression in a Myc-inducible Burkitt lymphoma model. We further show PhaNGS can be applied at the single-cell level. Our results reveal that a common set of proteins including FLT3, NCR3LG1, and ROR1 dominate the response to similar oncogenic perturbations in B cells. Linking high-affinity, selective, genetically encoded binders to NGS enables direct and highly multiplexed protein detection, comparable to RNA-sequencing for mRNA. PhaNGS has the potential to profile a substantial fraction of the surface proteome simultaneously and inexpensively to enable more accurate and complete classification of cell states.

PMID: 29476010 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

Whole transcriptome analysis reveals differential gene expression profile reflecting macrophage polarization in response to influenza A H5N1 virus infection.

Whole transcriptome analysis reveals differential gene expression profile reflecting macrophage polarization in response to influenza A H5N1 virus infection.

BMC Med Genomics. 2018 Feb 23;11(1):20

Authors: Zhang N, Bao YJ, Tong AH, Zuyderduyn S, Bader GD, Malik Peiris JS, Lok S, Lee SM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Avian influenza A H5N1 virus can cause lethal disease in humans. The virus can trigger severe pneumonia and lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Data from clinical, in vitro and in vivo suggest that virus-induced cytokine dysregulation could be a contributory factor to the pathogenesis of human H5N1 disease. However, the precise mechanism of H5N1 infection eliciting the unique host response are still not well understood.
METHODS: To obtain a better understanding of the molecular events at the earliest time points, we used RNA-Seq to quantify and compare the host mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes induced by the highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 (A/Vietnam/3212/04) or low virulent H1N1 (A/Hong Kong/54/98) viruses in human monocyte-derived macrophages at 1-, 3-, and 6-h post infection.
RESULTS: Our data reveals that two macrophage populations corresponding to M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated) macrophage subtypes respond distinctly to H5N1 virus infection when compared to H1N1 virus or mock infection, a distinction that could not be made from previous microarray studies. When this confounding variable is considered in our statistical model, a clear set of dysregulated genes and pathways emerges specifically in H5N1 virus-infected macrophages at 6-h post infection, whilst was not found with H1N1 virus infection. Furthermore, altered expression of genes in these pathways, which have been previously implicated in viral host response, occurs specifically in the M1 subtype. We observe a significant up-regulation of genes in the RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway. In particular, interferons, and interferon-stimulated genes are broadly affected. The negative regulators of interferon signaling, the suppressors of cytokine signaling, SOCS-1 and SOCS-3, were found to be markedly up-regulated in the initial round of H5N1 virus replication. Elevated levels of these suppressors could lead to the eventual suppression of cellular antiviral genes, contributing to pathophysiology of H5N1 virus infection.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides important mechanistic insights into the understanding of H5N1 viral pathogenesis and the multi-faceted host immune responses. The dysregulated genes could be potential candidates as therapeutic targets for treating H5N1 disease.

PMID: 29475453 [PubMed - in process]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

Angiogenic patterning by STEEL, an endothelial-enriched long noncoding RNA.

Related Articles

Angiogenic patterning by STEEL, an endothelial-enriched long noncoding RNA.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Feb 21;:

Authors: Man HSJ, Sukumar AN, Lam GC, Turgeon PJ, Yan MS, Ku KH, Dubinsky MK, Ho JJD, Wang JJ, Das S, Mitchell N, Oettgen P, Sefton MV, Marsden PA

Abstract
Endothelial cell (EC)-enriched protein coding genes, such as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), define quintessential EC-specific physiologic functions. It is not clear whether long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) also define cardiovascular cell type-specific phenotypes, especially in the vascular endothelium. Here, we report the existence of a set of EC-enriched lncRNAs and define a role for spliced-transcript endothelial-enriched lncRNA (STEEL) in angiogenic potential, macrovascular/microvascular identity, and shear stress responsiveness. STEEL is expressed from the terminus of the HOXD locus and is transcribed antisense to HOXD transcription factors. STEEL RNA increases the number and integrity of de novo perfused microvessels in an in vivo model and augments angiogenesis in vitro. The STEEL RNA is polyadenylated, nuclear enriched, and has microvascular predominance. Functionally, STEEL regulates a number of genes in diverse ECs. Of interest, STEEL up-regulates both eNOS and the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), and is subject to feedback inhibition by both eNOS and shear-augmented KLF2. Mechanistically, STEEL up-regulation of eNOS and KLF2 is transcriptionally mediated, in part, via interaction of chromatin-associated STEEL with the poly-ADP ribosylase, PARP1. For instance, STEEL recruits PARP1 to the KLF2 promoter. This work identifies a role for EC-enriched lncRNAs in the phenotypic adaptation of ECs to both body position and hemodynamic forces and establishes a newer role for lncRNAs in the transcriptional regulation of EC identity.

PMID: 29467285 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

Yeast Aim21/Tda2 both regulates free actin by reducing barbed end assembly and forms a complex with Cap1/Cap2 to balance actin assembly between patches and cables.

Related Articles

Yeast Aim21/Tda2 both regulates free actin by reducing barbed end assembly and forms a complex with Cap1/Cap2 to balance actin assembly between patches and cables.

Mol Biol Cell. 2018 Feb 21;:

Authors: Shin M, van Leeuwen J, Boone C, Bretscher A

Abstract
How cells balance the incorporation of actin into diverse structures is poorly understood. In budding yeast, a single actin monomer pool is used to build both actin cables involved in polarized growth and actin cortical patches involved in endocytosis. Here we report how Aim21/Tda2 is recruited to the cortical region of actin patches, where it negatively regulates actin assembly to elevate the available actin monomer pool. Aim21 has four polyproline regions and is recruited by two SH3-containing patch proteins Bbc1 and Abp1. The C-terminal region, which is required for its function, binds Tda2. Cell biological and biochemical data reveal that Aim21/Tda2 is a negative regulator of barbed end F-actin assembly, and this activity is necessary for efficient endocytosis and plays a pivotal role in balancing the distribution of actin between cables and patches. Aim21/Tda2 also forms a complex with the F-actin barbed end capping protein Cap1/Cap2, revealing an interplay between regulators, and showing the complexity of regulation of barbed end assembly.

PMID: 29467252 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

Photo-immobilized EGF chemical gradients differentially impact breast cancer cell invasion and drug response in defined 3D hydrogels.

Related Articles

Photo-immobilized EGF chemical gradients differentially impact breast cancer cell invasion and drug response in defined 3D hydrogels.

Biomaterials. 2018 Feb 13;:

Authors: Fisher SA, Tam RY, Fokina A, Mahmoodi MM, Distefano MD, Shoichet MS

Abstract
Breast cancer cell invasion is influenced by growth factor concentration gradients in the tumor microenvironment. However, studying the influence of growth factor gradients on breast cancer cell invasion is challenging due to both the complexities of in vivo models and the difficulties in recapitulating the tumor microenvironment with defined gradients using in vitro models. A defined hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogel crosslinked with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) cleavable peptides and modified with multiphoton labile nitrodibenzofuran (NDBF) was synthesized to photochemically immobilize epidermal growth factor (EGF) gradients. We demonstrate that EGF gradients can differentially influence breast cancer cell invasion and drug response in cell lines with different EGF receptor (EGFR) expression levels. Photopatterned EGF gradients increase the invasion of moderate EGFR expressing MDA-MB-231 cells, reduce invasion of high EGFR expressing MDA-MB-468 cells, and have no effect on invasion of low EGFR-expressing MCF-7 cells. We evaluate MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cell response to the clinically tested EGFR inhibitor, cetuximab. Interestingly, the cellular response to cetuximab is completely different on the EGF gradient hydrogels: cetuximab decreases MDA-MB-231 cell invasion but increases MDA-MB-468 cell invasion and cell number, thus demonstrating the importance of including cell-microenvironment interactions when evaluating drug targets.

PMID: 29452913 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

The Human Transcription Factors.

The Human Transcription Factors.

Cell. 2018 Feb 08;172(4):650-665

Authors: Lambert SA, Jolma A, Campitelli LF, Das PK, Yin Y, Albu M, Chen X, Taipale J, Hughes TR, Weirauch MT

Abstract
Transcription factors (TFs) recognize specific DNA sequences to control chromatin and transcription, forming a complex system that guides expression of the genome. Despite keen interest in understanding how TFs control gene expression, it remains challenging to determine how the precise genomic binding sites of TFs are specified and how TF binding ultimately relates to regulation of transcription. This review considers how TFs are identified and functionally characterized, principally through the lens of a catalog of over 1,600 likely human TFs and binding motifs for two-thirds of them. Major classes of human TFs differ markedly in their evolutionary trajectories and expression patterns, underscoring distinct functions. TFs likewise underlie many different aspects of human physiology, disease, and variation, highlighting the importance of continued effort to understand TF-mediated gene regulation.

PMID: 29425488 [PubMed - in process]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

Recent Progress in CFTR Interactome Mapping and Its Importance for Cystic Fibrosis.

Recent Progress in CFTR Interactome Mapping and Its Importance for Cystic Fibrosis.

Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:997

Authors: Lim SH, Legere EA, Snider J, Stagljar I

Abstract
Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel found in secretory epithelia with a plethora of known interacting proteins. Mutations in the CFTR gene cause cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease that leads to progressive respiratory illness and other complications of phenotypic variance resulting from perturbations of this protein interaction network. Studying the collection of CFTR interacting proteins and the differences between the interactomes of mutant and wild type CFTR provides insight into the molecular machinery of the disease and highlights possible therapeutic targets. This mini review focuses on functional genomics and proteomics approaches used for systematic, high-throughput identification of CFTR-interacting proteins to provide comprehensive insight into CFTR regulation and function.

PMID: 29403380 [PubMed]



▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄ ▄

Back to Top